An endemic species is one that is restricted in range to a particular habitat or region. In birding parlance the term often refers to a species being found only in one country. There are numerous endemic woodpeckers around the globe, with isolated islands often having endemic species. Here is a male Black-necked Woodpecker Colaptes atricollis race peruvianus, which is endemic to parts of Andean Peru. Taken in the Maranon Valley, Peru, November 2012, Gerard Gorman.
Arizona Woodpecker Picoides arizonae. This is a male, females lack the red hind-crown patch. Note that despite the name, this species also occurs in northern Mexico. Photo taken near Portal, Arizona, USA in July 2014, by Gerard Gorman.