This photo shows a dying mixed spruce-beech-fir forest. After a fire or an avalanche (as in this case), most beech trees fall and the damaged, broken standing spruces become infested with bark-beetles, especially Ips species. Such forests are major feeding habitat for woodpeckers, especially Eurasian Three-toed Woodpeckers which subsequently invade and breed in high densities. Photo taken in the Austrian Alps, April 2012, Gerard Gorman.
Male Buff-spotted Woodpecker Campethera nivosa. Note red nape, which females lack. At 14-16cm long this is a small member of the genus. Occurs in central-western Africa. Photo taken in Lake Mburo NP, Uganda, March 2012, Gerard Gorman.